A Ziegler–Natta catalyst: is a catalyst used in the synthesis of polymers of 1-alkenes (alpha-olefins). Two broad classes of Ziegler–Natta catalysts are employed, distinguished by their solubility:

Mass balance:

accumulation of species i = inlet flow of speices i — outlet flow of species i + generation of speices i

The molar flow rate changes in the reactor, while the mass flow rate is constant.

Catalyzed with homogenous or solid catalysts and uncatalyzed reactions:


Sequential-modular programs: in which the equations describing each process unit (module) are solved module-by-module in a stepwise manner. Iterative techniques are then used to solve the problems arising from the recycle of information.

Simultaneous (also known as equation-oriented) programs: in which the entire process is described by a set of equations, and the equations are solved simultaneously, not stepwise as in the sequential approach. Simultaneous programs can simulate the unsteady-state operation of processes and equipment, and can give faster convergence when multiple recycles are present.

For a good simulation:

New Pump:


Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the structure, properties and reactions of organic compounds, which contain carbon in covalent bonding

Hydrogen peroxide:

A vacuum can be created by removing air from a space using a vacuum pump or by reducing the pressure using a fast flow of fluid

The type of vacuum pump will depend on the degree of vacuum required, the capacity of the system, and the rate of air in-leakage.

Fourier’s law is the fundamental differentail equation for heat transfer by conduction.

For the radiation, Stefan-Boltzmann constant has the value of 5,67*10^(-12)

Shell and Tube:

the most common type of heat-transfer equipment

The TEMA standards cover three classes of exchanger: class R for the petroleum; class C covers exchangers for moderate duties in…

Because pure hydrogen does not occur naturally on Earth in large quantities, it usually requires a primary energy input to produce on an industrial scale. 95% of H2 would be proced through natural gas reforming and partial oxidation from fossil fuel:

Reactive Silencers: industrial reactive silencers are designed with multiple chambers and perforated tubes. These perforations redirect the sound waves and reflect them back toward the source of the sound and effectively reduce the volume of the noise we hear by scattering and reflecting the sound waves.

Absorptive Silencers: Since absorptive…

Main Components:


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